It is well established that the ubiquitously expressed master immune response transcription factor NF-κB is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections.  Indeed, COVID-19 is known to activate the NF-κB pathway that results in the upregulation of many inflammatory gene promoters.  It is postulated that this results from multiple catalytic interactions that occurs between the viral nucelocapsid proteins and NF-κB mediated immunomodulation. [3,4,5] This signaling dynamic is similar to the manner in which other highly fatal coronaviruses, such as MERS and SARS-COV, are known to take control of the NF-κB pathway. [6-8] The activation of the NF-kB pathway leads to the release of inflammatory mediators often linked to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. 
Vitamin D3 (VD3) also is a regulator of NF-kB mediated cellular responses, It is known to inhibit the production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, interleukins, and other key activators of the cellular immune defense. [9,10] VD3 promotes phenotypic shifting of lymphocytes towards an anti-inflammatory subsets.  Furthermore, data from clinical studies indicate that VD3 deficiency is clinically associated with increased susceptibility to respiratory viral infections and increased severity once infected.  In the case of respiratory syncytial virus, vitamin D3 increases synthesis of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα, resulting in decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes… Continue reading.
Six Biomedical Engineering Society members were elected to the National Academy of Engineering: James Anderson, Dawn Bonnell, Raphael Lee, Kam Leong, Richard Murray and Stephen Quake.
NAE elected 69 new members and 11 foreign associates total, NAE President Charles M. Vest announced this week. This brings the total U.S. membership to 2,250 and the number of foreign associates to 211.
Election to the National Academy of Engineering is among the highest professional distinctions accorded to an engineer.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) has elected 69 new members and 11 foreign associates, announced NAE President Charles M. Vest today. This brings the total U.S. membership to 2,250 and the number of foreign associates to 211.
Election to the National Academy of Engineering is among the highest professional distinctions accorded to an engineer. Academy membership honors those who have made outstanding contributions to “engineering research, practice, or education, including, where appropriate, significant contributions to the engineering literature,” and to the “pioneering of new and developing fields of technology, making major advancements in traditional fields of engineering, or developing/implementing innovative approaches to engineering education.”
A list of the newly elected members and foreign associates follows, with their primary affiliations at the time of election and a brief statement of their principal engineering accomplishments.